Criminal wrongdoing, Punishment as secular penance, Crime and punishment, State v. Forrest, People v. Goetz, State v. Williams, Walker v. Superior Court, Criminal law excuses, Crime as moral failure, Crimes of negligence
Criminal Law | Law and Society
I distinguish two kinds of criminal wrongs. A wrongdoer who acts in defiance of his conscience is guilty of what I call a wicked wrong. A wrongdoer who does not act in defiance of his conscience is guilty of what I call a vicious wrong. The distinction is derived from a conception of immorality typically associated with the Christian tradition. The distinction is important because it determines the moral message a wrongdoer should try to send through the punishment or penance he must endure in order to atone for his wrongdoing.
Garvey, Stephen P., "Two Kinds of Criminal Wrongs" (2003). Cornell Law Faculty Publications. Paper 291.
Published in: Punishment and Society, vol. 5, no. 3 (July 2003).