As part of the independence constitutional arrangements for Northern Rhodesia, in May 1964 in London, Kenneth David Kaunda, then Prime Minister at the head of the Self Government of Northern Rhodesia signed the Barotseland Agreement with the Litunga of the Lozi people Sir Mwanawina Lewanika III. The Barotseland Agreement of 1964 recognised the Litunga of Barotseland (Bulozi) as the principal local authority for the government and administration of Barotseland, with powers to make laws of Barotseland in respect to matters such as land, natural resources and taxation. The Barotseland Agreement 1964 was abrogated and cancelled by the Zambian Republican Government (GRZ) through the Constitutional (Amendment) Act of October 1969. Some groups among the Lozi (activists) have been lobbying for the restoration of the Barotseland Agreement 1964 for over four decades. Some extreme elements have even called for secession. The Barotseland Agreement activists include among others the Movement of the Restoration of Barotseland Agreement (MOREBA), the Barotse Patriotic Front (BPF) and Linyunga Ndambo. On 23rd October 2010 and 14th January 2011, the activists were involved in violent disturbances, which rocked Mongu and surrounding areas. The 14th January riots resulted in fatalities, serious injuries, arrests and detentions. The state came down heavily on the activists who were arrested. Twenty-four detainees were charged with treason for seeking to secede Barotseland, now Western Province, from the Republic of Zambia, while others were charged with riotous behaviour or conduct likely to cause a breach of peace. The nation was shocked by the violence and deaths. Concerned nationals, civic and church organizations, scholars, lawyers, political leaders and analysts from all corners of the country and in the diaspora raised issues and concerns: What was the basis of the Litunga’s power? Was secession a viable alternative? And what geographical area was to be excised from Zambia? etc. etc. This paper attempts to throw more light on the deep historical roots of the Barotseland Agreement 1964, going as far back as the 1900 Concessions/Treaties which were negotiated and signed by Lubosi Lewanika ruler of the Lozi, the British South Africa Chartered Company (BSA Co.) and the British Government.
Bull, Mutumba Mainga
"Reserved Area: Barotseland of the 1964 Agreement,"
Zambia Social Science Journal: Vol. 5
, Article 4.
Available at: http://scholarship.law.cornell.edu/zssj/vol5/iss1/4