Innovation and entrepreneurship have the potential to stimulate economic growth. Yet it remains unclear whether top-down or bottom-up innovations are more likely to lead to local economic development. By looking at three cases of frugal innovation on the Zambian Copperbelt, in the spheres of housing, water and energy, it will be argued that polycentric innovation (which connects local and international actors) is most likely to generate inclusive development. Yet even a polycentric approach does not guarantee desired outcomes, as innovation remains context specific.
"Homegrown or Imported? Frugal Innovation and Local Economic Development in Zambia,"
Southern African Journal of Policy and Development: Vol. 2
, Article 5.
Available at: https://scholarship.law.cornell.edu/sajpd/vol2/iss1/5