Document Type


Publication Date



General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, GATT, Subsidies, Countervailing duties, Zenith Radio Corp. v. United States, Free trade and economic efficiency, Free trade-efficiency theory, Pareto optimality, Export subsidies ban, Taxes occultes, GATT Article XXIII


Antitrust and Trade Regulation | International Law | International Trade Law | Law and Economics


The author recommends a new scheme for regulating the use of government subsidies and countervailing duties in international trade, an area presently regulated by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. He contends that these rules should be based to a large extent on principles of free trade and economic efficiency. In addition to setting out proposed regulations, the author analyzes the strength and weaknesses of free trade theory and of the present GATT rules regarding subsidies and countervailing duties.

Publication Citation

Published in: Law and Policy in International Business, vol. 9, no. 3 (1977).